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Alzheimer's Disease Related Terms

- N -

  • Nerve Cell (NEURON)

  • The basic working unit of the nervous system. The nerve cell is typically composed of a cell body containing the nucleus, several short branches (dendrites), and one long arm (the axon) with short branches along its length and at its end. Nerve cells send signals that control the actions of other cells in the body, such as other nerve cells and muscle cells.

  • Nerve Cell Line

  • A group of nerve cells derived from a cell culture that can be used for experimental purposes.

  • Nerve Cell Transplantation

  • An experimental procedure in which normal brain cells are implanted into diseased areas of the brain to replace dying or damaged cells.

  • Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)

  • A protein that promotes nerve cell growth and may protect some types of nerve cells from damage.

  • Neuritic Plaque

  • See amyloid plaque.

  • Neurodegenerative Disease

  • A type of neurological disorder marked by the loss of nerve cells. See Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease.

  • Neurofibrillary Tangle

  • Accumulation of twisted protein fragments inside nerve cells. Neurofibrillary tangles are one of the characteristic structural abnormalities found in the brains of Alzheimer patients. Upon autopsy, the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles is used to positively diagnose Alzheimer’s.

  • Neurological Disorder

  • Disturbance in structure or function of the nervous system resulting from developmental abnormality, disease, injury, or toxin.

  • Neurologist

  • A physician who diagnoses and treats disorders of the nervous system.

  • Neuron

  • See nerve cell.

  • Neuropathology

  • Changes in the brain produced by a disease.

  • Neurotransmission

  • Passage of signals from one nerve cell to another via chemical substances or electrical signals.

  • Neurotransmitter

  • Specialized chemical messenger (e.g., acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin) that sends a message from one nerve cell to another. Most neurotransmitters play different roles throughout the body, many of which are not yet known.

  • Neurotrophic Factor

  • A protein, such as nerve growth factor, that promotes nerve cell growth and survival.

  • Nucleus

  • The central component of a cell; contains all genetic material.


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Alzheimer’s Disease Terms


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