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Epidemiology Related Terms

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  • Immunity, Active

  • Resistance developed in response to stimulus by an antigen (infecting agent or vaccine) and usually characterized by the presence of antibody produced by the host.

  • Immunity, Herd

  • The resistance of a group to invasion and spread of an infectious agent, based on the resistance to infection of a high proportion of individual members of the group. The resistance is a product of the number susceptible and the probability that those who

  • Immunity, Passive

  • Immunity conferred by an antibody produced in another host and acquired naturally by an infant from its mother or artificially by administration of an antibody-containing preparation (antiserum or immune globulin).

  • Incidence Rate

  • A measure of the frequency with which an event, such as a new case of illness, occurs in a population over a period of time. The denominator is the population at risk; the numerator is the number of new cases occurring during a given time period.

  • Incubation Period

  • A period of subclinical or inapparent pathologic changes following exposure, ending with the onset of symptoms of infectious disease.

  • Independent Variable

  • An exposure, risk factor, or other characteristic being observed or measured that is hypothesized to influence an event or manifestation (the dependent variable).

  • Indirect Transmission

  • The transmission of an agent carried from a reservoir to a susceptible host by suspended air particles or by animate (vector) or inanimate (vehicle) intermediaries.

  • Individual Data

  • Data that have not been put into a frequency distribution or rank ordered.

  • Infectivity

  • The proportion of persons exposed to a causative agent who become infected by an infectious disease.

  • Inference, Statistical

  • In statistics, the development of generalizations from sample data, usually with calculated degrees of uncertainty.

  • Interquartile Range

  • The central portion of a distribution, calculated as the difference between the third quartile and the first quartile; this range includes about one-half of the observations in the set, leaving one-quarter of the observations on each side.

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Epidemiology Terms

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