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Terms related to Brain Injuries

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  • Acceleration / Deceleration

  • A closed head injury often sustained in car accidents, where the brain smashes forwards and then backwards, rebounding against the walls of the skull, causing damage to both the frontal lobes and the back of the brain.

  • Amnesia

  • Failure of memory. Hence, POST-TRAUMATIC AMNESIA (PTA) which is the lapse of time after the injury until continuous recall, and retrograde amnesia (see RETROGRADE AMNESIA).

  • Aneurism

  • Swelling or dilation of an artery due to a weakened wall.

  • Anosmia

  • Loss of sense of smell.

  • Anoxia

  • A term applied to that state in which the body tissues have an inadequate supply of oxygen. This may be because the blood in the lungs does not receive enough oxygen, or because there is not enough blood to receive oxygen, or because the blood stagnates in the body.

  • Apathy

  • A direct result of brain injury to frontal lobe structures which concern emotion, motivation and forward planning.

  • Aphasia / Dysphasia

  • Difficulty understanding or expressing language as a result of damage to the brain.

  • Apraxia / Dyspraxia

  • Inability to plan and perform purposeful movements, while still having the ability to move and be aware of movements.

  • Arachnoid

  • One of the three membranes holding the brain together within the skull.

  • Arterial Line

  • A very thin tube (catheter) inserted into an artery to allow direct measurement of the blood pressure, the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.

  • Ataxia

  • Abnormal movements due to loss of co-ordination of the muscles.

  • Axon / Dendrites

  • Nerve cells in the brain which look like small hair-like tentacles. The cells communicate with each other by passing electrical and chemical impulses between the tentacles.

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Brain Injury Terms

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