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Epidemiology Related Terms

- E -

  • Endemic Disease

  • The constant presence of a disease or infectious agent within a given geographic area or population group; may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease within such area or group.

  • Environmental Factor

  • An extrinsic factor (geology, climate, insects, sanitation, health services, etc.) which affects the agent and the opportunity for exposure.

  • Epidemic

  • The occurrence of more cases of disease than expected in a given area or among a specific group of people over a particular period of time.

  • Epidemic Curve

  • A histogram that shows the course of a disease outbreak or epidemic by plotting the number of cases by time of onset.

  • Epidemic Period

  • A time period when the number of cases of disease reported is greater than expected.

  • Epidemiologic Triad

  • The traditional model of infectious disease causation. Includes three components: an external agent, a susceptible host, and an environment that brings the host and agent together, so that disease occurs.

  • Epidemiology

  • The study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the control of health problems.

  • Evaluation

  • A process that attempts to determine as systematically and objectively as possible the relevance, effectiveness, and impact of activities in the light of their objectives.

  • Experimental Study

  • A study in which the investigator specifies the exposure category for each individual (clinical trial) or community (community trial), then follows the individuals or community to detect the effects of the exposure.

  • Exposed (GROUP)

  • A group whose members have been exposed to a supposed cause of disease or health state of interest, or possess a characteristic that is a determinant of the health outcome of interest.


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Epidemiology Terms






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